Search and Filter Text with grep


The grep utility provides users of most Unix-like operating systems with a tool to search and filter text using a common regular expression syntax. Indeed, grep is so ubiquitous that the verb “to grep” has emerged as a synonym for “to search.” grep is an ideal tool for finding all occurrences of a value in a selection of files, filtering a log file for certain entries, or as part of a script or chain of commands.

Using Grep

This grep guide references recent versions of GNU grep, which are included by default in all images provided by Linode. It is also provided as part of the common “base” selection of packages provided in nearly all distributions of Linux-based operating systems.

The Grep Command

A typical grep command takes the following form:

1grep “string” ~/threads

The grep invocation is followed by a pattern, or a “search term,” and then optionally by the name of a file. The above sequence will search for the string sequence of characters located in the ~/threads file. grep also permits recursive searching throughout directory trees. Issue a command in the following format:

1grep -r “string” ~/thread/

When used on a specific file, grep only outputs the lines that contain the matching string. When run in recursive mode, grep outputs the full path to the file, followed by a colon, and the contents of the line that matches the pattern. Patterns in grep are, by default, “basic regular expressions;” however, if you need a more expressive regular expression syntax grep is capable of accepting patterns in alternate formats with the following switches:

  • Use -E to access the extended regular expression syntax. Equivalent to the deprecated egrep command.
  • Use -P to access Perl compatible regular expression syntax.

Grep provides a number of very powerful options to control its output. The most significant of these options are:

  • Set -o to only output the matching segment of the line, rather than the full contents of the line.
  • Set -n to print the line number of where the pattern matches occur.
  • Set -C 2, where 2 can be replaced by any number to show, in addition to the matching line, the specified number of “context” lines.

In addition to reading content from files, grep can read and filter a text feed on standard input. The output of any command or stream can be “piped” (e.g. with the | operator) to the grep command. Then, grep filters this output according to the match pattern specified and outputs only the matching lines. For instance, given the following command:

1ls –help | grep “dired”

This filters the output of the ls commands help text and looks for appearances of “dired”, and outputs them to standard out (the current session). The output resembles:

1-D, –dired generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

The combination of both input possibilities makes grep a powerful tool for interacting with large amounts of textual data.

Regular Expression Overview

While straight-forward pattern matching is powerful for some filtering tasks, the true power of greplies in its ability to use regular expressions for complex pattern matching that make it possible to write more expressive patterns. Most characters in regular expressions match with input data literally; however, there are some sequences that carry special significance. If you want to mach these characters literally you can use the escape character \ to transform the next character into a literal match. Consider the following characters with special significance in grep substitution scripts:

  • The . symbol matches any character.
  • The * symbol causes the character immediately proceeding character to successfully match to zero or more instances of that character in the data set.
  • The + symbol causes the character immediately proceeding character to successfully match to one or more instances of that character in the data set.
  • Square brackets, [], enclose a set of characters, that match against any member of the set of specified characters. When prefaced with a caret, as in [^ABC], this matches none of the characters specified in the set.
  • The | character provides an “OR” operator, so the sequence ^(www|ftp)\. would match a line that began with the characters www or ftp.
  • Parenthetical characters, (), allow you to write more complex expressions, particularly in conjunction with the pipe | operator. Parentheses create “sub expressions” which can be modified in a single group.
  • The ^ character matches the beginning of a line.
  • The $ character matches the end of a line.
  • The \ character, as previously stated, escapes the following character for literal matching if it caries additional meaning.

These operators provide only a very limited overview of the capabilities of grep’s regular expression syntax. Remember that grep operations are non-destructive, which makes it easy to experiment with matching patterns. Consider the examples that follow as a more practical introduction to this tool.

Filtering Logs with Grep

One popular use of grep is to extract useful information from system logs. Consider the following examples.

1grep -Eoc “^[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}.* 200” /srv/www/

In this command, grep filters an apache access log for a line that begins with an IP address, is followed by a number of characters, a space and then the characters 200 (where 200 represents the record of a successful HTTP connection). The -c option outputs only a count of the number of matches. To get the output of the IP address of the visitor and the path of the requested file for successful requests, omit the -c option as follows:

1grep -Eo “^[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}.* 200” /srv/www/

The squiggly brackets (e.g. { and }) indicate the number of instances of the match. {1,3}requires that the previous character or character class must occur at least once, but no more than three times. The character class [0-9] will successfully match against one or more numeric digits. To generate similar output but report on unsuccessful attempts to access content, use a command that resembles the following:

1grep -Eo “^[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}.* 404” /srv/www/

The following variant of the above command generates a list of all IP addresses that have attempted to connect to your web server. Using the -o option, only the matching strings are sent to standard output. This output is filtered through the utility uniq with the “pipe” operator (e.g. |) to filter out duplicate entries from a single IP address:

1grep -Eo “^[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}” /srv/www/ | uniq

In the next example, you can see an alternate pattern for matching an IP address in a different log. The following command searches the most recent /var/log/auth.log file for invalid login attempts:

1grep -Eo “Invalid user.*([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}” /var/log/auth.log

You can split the above command into two layers to output a quick list of IP addresses with failed login attempts to your system:

1grep “Invalid user” /var/log/auth.log | grep -Eo “([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}” | uniq

The grep tool, when accepting input from standard output, can filter the output of commands like tail -F to provide real-time monitoring of specific log events. Consider the following command:

1tail ~/.procmail/procmail.log -F | grep “Subject”

In this case, tail follows the ~/procmail/procmail.log file where the procmail mail filtering tool logs filtering. This output is passed to grep, which filters the stream and prints only lines that contain the string Subject and prints those lines.

These examples outline several distinct ways that the grep tool is used to aid in the administration of Linux-based systems. Because grep operations are almost always non-destructive, it is easy to experiment with grep to generate the kind of information you require from text files.

Filtering Commands with Grep

Beyond its uses in shell scripting and log filtering, grep has many alternate uses. In the following example, grep filters the lengthy tar help text to more efficiently find the options for dealing with bzip files:

1tar –help | grep “bzip”

grep is also useful for filtering the output of ls when listing the contents of directories with a large number of files. Take the following example:

1ls /usr/lib | grep “xml”

While there may be many files in the /usr/lib directory, the list of files with the string xml in their title may be more useful.

Grep Compressed Files with zgrep

The zgrep command functions identically to the grep command above; however, it adds the ability to run grep operations on files that have been compressed with gzip without requiring an extra compression and decompression step. Consider the following command, adapted from above to search an older compressed log:

1zgrep -Eo “Invalid user.*([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}” /var/log/auth.log.2.gz

zgrep operations take longer than standard grep operations because of the additional overhead of reading the compressed files.

Views: 14


What is the capital of Egypt? ( Cairo )